Properties of Materials(QTS 104) 2nd quiz. 15mrks.

Ensure to write your reference number, name and phone number. Submit online before monday.

Each carries equal marks. You must not copy others work. Be genuine to earn more marks.

All the best.

Qst 1.

What is distemper?

How is it applied to the surface?

Write down the properties of distemper.
Qst2. Comparison  between clamp burning and kiln burning of the bricks.

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85 thoughts on “Properties of Materials(QTS 104) 2nd quiz. 15mrks.

  1. NAME : FARUK SUFIYAN

    REG NO: FPI/ND/QS/15/045

    PHONE NO: 08187249537

    QUIZ ON QTS 104

    QST 1. WHAT IS DISTEMPER?

    ANSWER..

    distemper is a term with variety of meaning for paints used in decorating and as a historical medium for painting pictures, and contrasted with tempera . The binder may be glues if vegetable or animal origin ( excluding egg) .soft distemper us not abrasion resistant and may include binders such as chalk, grind pigment , and chemical glue. Hard distemper is stronger and wear resistant and can include casein or indeed oil as binders .

    HOW TO APPLIED DISTEMPER ON THE SURFACE
    ——-PLANING BEFORE PAINTING
    1. first identify the areas that are to be painted , like wall , ceiling doors, metal grills , wooden furniture etc.
    2.Check for any repairs needed on the identify area.e.g there is any seepage or leakage in any of the wall or ceiling then that should be treated on the surface.Any plastered, repairing and waterproof be done before painting.
    3.It is advisable to paint humid climate or in raining season because in this condition paint take longer time to dry and the film does not cure properly.

    PAINTING PROCESS
    —SANDING /SURFACE PREPARATION
    1. While painting the interior walls, allow it to dry fit sufficient time after application if lime -wash.. Then remove all dust , dirt, loose particle , flakes by using appropriate sand paper.

  2. NAME : AMEH EMMANUEL DELIGHT

    REG NO: FPI/ND/QS/15/016

    PHONE NO: 07038935253

    QUIZ ON QTS 104

    QST 1. WHAT IS DISTEMPER?

    ANSWER..

    distemper is a term with variety of meaning for paints used in decorating and as a historical medium for painting pictures, and contrasted with tempera . The binder may be glues if vegetable or animal origin ( excluding egg) .soft distemper us not abrasion resistant and may include binders such as chalk, grind pigment , and chemical glue.

    HOW TO APPLIED DISTEMPER ON THE SURFACE
    ——-PLANING BEFORE PAINTING
    1. first identify the areas that are to be painted , like wall , ceiling doors, metal grills , wooden furniture etc.
    2.Check for any repairs needed on the identify area.e.g there is any seepage or leakage in any of the wall or ceiling then that should be treated on the surface.Any plastered, repairing and waterproof be done before painting.
    3.It is advisable to paint humid climate or in raining season because in this condition paint take longer time to dry and the film does not cure properly.

    PAINTING PROCESS
    —SANDING /SURFACE PREPARATION
    1. While painting the interior walls, allow it to dry fit sufficient time after application if lime -wash.. Then remove all dust , dirt, loose particle , flakes by using appropriate sand paper.

  3. Name: Otuoze Y. Joachim
    FPI/ND/QS/15/049
    Phone No: 07038437668

    Distemper is made with base as white chalk and thinner as water. Some colouring pigments and glue are added. They are available in powder and paste forms and are substantially cheaper than paints. They are mos
    Method of application
    1. sprayin
    2. non-sptaying (rubbing)
    Procedure of Application
    1.The entire surface should be coated with proper distemper brushes in horizontal strokes uniformly followed by vertical ones immediately.
    2.The subsequent coats should be applied only after the previous coats are dried.
    3.The finished surface should be even and uniform showing no brush marks
    4.Enough distemper should be mixed to finish one room at a time.
    5.After a days work the brushes should be washed in hot water and hung down to dry.
    6.Old and dirty brushes with distemper should not be used.
    properties of distemper
    1. they are generally light in color
    2. they exhibit poor workability
    3. they are less durable than oil paint
    QS2
    comparism between clamp burning and kiln burning of bricks
    Clamp Burning: Clamp is a: temporary structure generally constructed over the ground with a height of about 4 to 6 m. It is employed when the demand of the bricks is lower scale and when it is not a monsoon season. This is generally trapezoidal in plan whose shorter edge among the parallel sides is below the ground and then the surface raising constantly at about 15 degrees to reach the other parallel edge over the ground.A vertical brick and mud wall is constructed at the lower edge to support the stack of the brick. First layer of fuel is laid as the bottom most layer with the coal, wood and other locally available material like cow dung and husk.Another layer of about 4 to 5 rows of bricks is laid and then again a fuel layer is laid over it. The thickness of the fuel layer goes on with the height of the clamp.
    while
    Kiln Burning: Kiln is a large oven used for the burning of bricks. Generally coal and other locally available materials like wood, cow dung etc can be used as fuel. They are of two types:
    • Intermittent Kilns.
    • Continuous Kilns.
    1.Intermittent Kilns: these are also the periodic kind of kilns, because in such kilns only one process can take place at one time. Various major processes which takes place in the kilns are:Loading, unloading, Cooling, and Burning of bricks. There are two kind of intermittent kilns:
    (i) (ii) Up-draught Intermittent Kilns Down draught Intermittent Kilns Down draught kilns are more efficient because the heat is utilized more by moving the hot gases in the larger area of the kiln. In up draught kilns the hot gases are released after they rise up to chimney entrance.
    2.Continuous Kilns: These kilns are called continuous because all the processes of loading, unloading, cooling, heating, pre-heating take place simultaneously. They are used when the bricks are demanded in larger scale and in short time. Bricks burning are completed in one day, so it is a fast method of burning.

  4. OCHEJE ENEOJO VICTOR
    FPI/ND/QS/15/021
    08062821693
    Q1-WHAT IS DISTEMPER?
    Distemper is a traditional hand-made paint, that leaves a soft, velvetly, slightly uneven finish. Most of the time distemper can be applied in two coats, one straight after the other. When prepared properly, it goes on easily, dries quickly and can be washed off again with a wet rag. This makes it perfect for painting decorative plasterwork like cornices and ceiling roses where you don’t want a build up of paint layers to bury the sculptural detail.
    Unfortunately, distempered walls scuff and scratch easily and are difficult to keep clean. Spot cleaning will leave smears and streaks, although in the past distempers were used in low key and utilitarian areas where appearance was unimportant.
    Distemper is a perfect finish in buildings where moisture is a problem. Its porosity, or in other words, its ability to breathe, allows underlying moisture to escape to the surface and away from the masonry. It’s also the only paint that will sit happily on freshly plastered walls. Oil paint, by contrast, reacts dramatically with the high lime content of traditional plaster, causing the paint to go gluggy and ‘saponify’, which results in a soapy mess. To avoid this, new walls were left to cure for two to three years, or buffed to a smooth polish. Otherwise the surfaces were finished in distemper until the lime had settled down.

    Q2-
    * Burning of Bricks:
    Bricks are burned at high temperature to gain the strength, durability, density and red color appearance.
    All the water is removed at the temperature of 650 degrees but they are burnt at an temperature of about 1100 degrees because the fusing of sand and lime takes place at this temperature and chemical bonding takes between these materials after the temperature is cooled down resulting in the hard and dense mass.
    Bricks are not burnt above this temperature because it will result in the melting of the bricks and will result in a distorted shape and a very hard mass when cooled which will not be workable while brickwork. Bricks can be burnt using the following methods:
    (a) Clamp Burning
    (b) Kiln Burning
    * Clamp Burning:
    Clamp is a temporary structure generally constructed over the ground with a height of about 4 to 6 m. It is employed when the demand of the bricks is lower scale and when it is not a monsoon season.
    This is generally trapezoidal in plan whose shorter edge among the parallel sides is below the ground and then the surface raising constantly at about 15 degrees to reach the other parallel edge over the ground.
    A vertical brick and mud wall is constructed at the lower edge to support the stack of the brick. First layer of fuel is laid as the bottom most layer with the coal, wood and other locally available material like cow dung and husk.
    Another layer of about 4 to 5 rows of bricks is laid and then again a fuel layer is laid over it. The thickness of the fuel layer goes on with the height of the clamp.
    After these alternate layers of the bricks and fuel the top surface is covered with the mud so as to preserve the heat.
    Fire is ignited at the bottom, once fire is started it is kept under fire by itself for one or two months and same time period is needed for the cooling of the bricks.
    Disadvantages of Clamp burning:
    1. Bricks at the bottom are over-burnt while at the top are under-burnt.
    2. Bricks loose their shape, and reason may be their descending downward once the fuel layer is burnt.
    3. This method can not employed for the manufacturing of large number of bricks and it is costly in terms of fuel because large amount of heat is wasted.
    4. It can not be employed in monsoon season.
    * Kiln Burning:
    Kiln is a large oven used for the burning of bricks. Generally coal and other locally available materials like wood, cow dung etc can be used as fuel. They are of two types:
    (a) Intermittent Kilns.
    (b) Continuous Kilns.
    Intermittent Kilns
    are also the periodic kind of kilns, because in such kilns only one process can take place at one time. Various major processes which takes place in the kilns are:
    Loading, unloading, Cooling, and Burning of bricks.
    There are two kind of intermittent kilns:
    (i) Up-draught Intermittent Kilns
    (ii) Down draught Intermittent Kilns
    Down draught kilns are more efficient because the heat is utilized more by moving the hot gases in the larger area of the kiln. In up draught kilns the hot gases are released after they rise up to chimney entrance.
    Continuous Kilns:
    These kilns are called continuous because all the processes of loading, unloading, cooling, Heating, pre-heating take place simultaneously. They are used when the bricks are demanded in larger scale and in short time. Bricks burning is completed in one day, so it is a fast method of burning.
    There are two well known continuous kilns:
    Bull’s Trench Kiln:
    Bull’s trench kiln consist of a rectangular, circular or oval plan shape. They are constructed below the ground level by excavating a trench of the required width for the given capacity of brick manufacturing.
    This Trench is divided generally in 12 chambers so that 2 numbers of cycles of brick burning can take place at the same time for the larger production of the bricks. Or it may happen that one cycle is carried out at one time in all the 12 chambers by using a single process in the 2-3 chambers at the same time.
    The structure is under-ground so the heat is conserved to a large extent so it is more efficient. Once fire is started it constantly travels from one chamber to the other chamber, while other operations like loading, unloading, cooling, burning and preheating taking place simultaneously.
    Such kilns are generally constructed to have a manufacturing capacity of about 20,000 bricks per day. The drawback of this kiln is that there is not a permanent roof, so it is not easy to manufacture the bricks in the monsoon seasons.
    Hoffman’s Kiln:
    The main difference between the Bull’s trench kiln and the Hoffman kilns are:
    1. Hoffman’s kiln is an over the ground structure while Bull’s Trench Kiln is an underground structure.
    2. Hoffman’s kiln have a permanent roof while Bull’s trench Kiln do not have so it former can be used in 12 months a year to manufacture bricks but later is stopped in the monsoon season.
    Hoffman’s kiln is generally circular in plan, and is constructed over the ground. The whole structure is divided into the 12 chambers and all the processes takes place simultaneously like in Bull’s trench Kiln.

  5. OCHEJE ENEOJO VICTOR
    FPI/ND/QS/15/021
    08062821693

    Q1
    WHAT IS DISTEMPER?
    Distemper is a traditional hand-made paint, that leaves a soft, velvetly, slightly uneven finish. Most of the time distemper can be applied in two coats, one straight after the other. When prepared properly, it goes on easily, dries quickly and can be washed off again with a wet rag. This makes it perfect for painting decorative plasterwork like cornices and ceiling roses where you don’t want a build up of paint layers to bury the sculptural detail.
    Unfortunately, distempered walls scuff and scratch easily and are difficult to keep clean. Spot cleaning will leave smears and streaks, although in the past distempers were used in low key and utilitarian areas where appearance was unimportant.
    Distemper is a perfect finish in buildings where moisture is a problem. Its porosity, or in other words, its ability to breathe, allows underlying moisture to escape to the surface and away from the masonry. It’s also the only paint that will sit happily on freshly plastered walls. Oil paint, by contrast, reacts dramatically with the high lime content of traditional plaster, causing the paint to go gluggy and ‘saponify’, which results in a soapy mess. To avoid this, new walls were left to cure for two to three years, or buffed to a smooth polish. Otherwise the surfaces were finished in distemper until the lime had settled down.

    Q2-
    Clamp Burning:
    Clamp is a temporary structure generally constructed over the ground with a height of about 4 to 6 m. It is employed when the demand of the bricks is lower scale and when it is not a monsoon season.
    This is generally trapezoidal in plan whose shorter edge among the parallel sides is below the ground and then the surface raising constantly at about 15 degrees to reach the other parallel edge over the ground.
    A vertical brick and mud wall is constructed at the lower edge to support the stack of the brick. First layer of fuel is laid as the bottom most layer with the coal, wood and other locally available material like cow dung and husk.
    Another layer of about 4 to 5 rows of bricks is laid and then again a fuel layer is laid over it. The thickness of the fuel layer goes on with the height of the clamp.
    After these alternate layers of the bricks and fuel the top surface is covered with the mud so as to preserve the heat.
    Fire is ignited at the bottom, once fire is started it is kept under fire by itself for one or two months and same time period is needed for the cooling of the bricks.
    Disadvantages of Clamp burning:
    1. Bricks at the bottom are over-burnt while at the top are under-burnt.
    2. Bricks loose their shape, and reason may be their descending downward once the fuel layer is burnt.
    3. This method can not employed for the manufacturing of large number of bricks and it is costly in terms of fuel because large amount of heat is wasted.
    4. It can not be employed in monsoon season.
    Kiln Burning:
    Kiln is a large oven used for the burning of bricks. Generally coal and other locally available materials like wood, cow dung etc can be used as fuel. They are of two types:
    (a) Intermittent Kilns.
    (b) Continuous Kilns.
    Intermittent Kilns
    are also the periodic kind of kilns, because in such kilns only one process can take place at one time. Various major processes which takes place in the kilns are:
    Loading, unloading, Cooling, and Burning of bricks.
    There are two kind of intermittent kilns:
    (i) Up-draught Intermittent Kilns
    (ii) Down draught Intermittent Kilns
    Down draught kilns are more efficient because the heat is utilized more by moving the hot gases in the larger area of the kiln. In up draught kilns the hot gases are released after they rise up to chimney entrance.
    Continuous Kilns:
    These kilns are called continuous because all the processes of loading, unloading, cooling, Heating, pre-heating take place simultaneously. They are used when the bricks are demanded in larger scale and in short time. Bricks burning is completed in one day, so it is a fast method of burning.
    There are two well known continuous kilns:
    Bull’s Trench Kiln:
    Bull’s trench kiln consist of a rectangular, circular or oval plan shape. They are constructed below the ground level by excavating a trench of the required width for the given capacity of brick manufacturing.
    This Trench is divided generally in 12 chambers so that 2 numbers of cycles of brick burning can take place at the same time for the larger production of the bricks. Or it may happen that one cycle is carried out at one time in all the 12 chambers by using a single process in the 2-3 chambers at the same time.
    The structure is under-ground so the heat is conserved to a large extent so it is more efficient. Once fire is started it constantly travels from one chamber to the other chamber, while other operations like loading, unloading, cooling, burning and preheating taking place simultaneously.
    Such kilns are generally constructed to have a manufacturing capacity of about 20,000 bricks per day. The drawback of this kiln is that there is not a permanent roof, so it is not easy to manufacture the bricks in the monsoon seasons.
    Hoffman’s Kiln:
    The main difference between the Bull’s trench kiln and the Hoffman kilns are:
    1. Hoffman’s kiln is an over the ground structure while Bull’s Trench Kiln is an underground structure.
    2. Hoffman’s kiln have a permanent roof while Bull’s trench Kiln do not have so it former can be used in 12 months a year to manufacture bricks but later is stopped in the monsoon season.
    Hoffman’s kiln is generally circular in plan, and is constructed over the ground. The whole structure is divided into the 12 chambers and all the processes takes place simultaneously like in Bull’s trench Kiln.

  6. AMEH UKOLOJO
    FPI/ND/QS/15/054
    08133341825

    Q1-WHAT IS DISTEMPER?
    Distemper is a traditional hand-made paint, that leaves a soft, velvetly, slightly uneven finish. Most of the time distemper can be applied in two coats, one straight after the other. When prepared properly, it goes on easily, dries quickly and can be washed off again with a wet rag. This makes it perfect for painting decorative plasterwork like cornices and ceiling roses where you don’t want a build up of paint layers to bury the sculptural detail.
    Unfortunately, distempered walls scuff and scratch easily and are difficult to keep clean. Spot cleaning will leave smears and streaks, although in the past distempers were used in low key and utilitarian areas where appearance was unimportant.
    Distemper is a perfect finish in buildings where moisture is a problem. Its porosity, or in other words, its ability to breathe, allows underlying moisture to escape to the surface and away from the masonry. It’s also the only paint that will sit happily on freshly plastered walls. Oil paint, by contrast, reacts dramatically with the high lime content of traditional plaster, causing the paint to go gluggy and ‘saponify’, which results in a soapy mess. To avoid this, new walls were left to cure for two to three years, or buffed to a smooth polish. Otherwise the surfaces were finished in distemper until the lime had settled down.

    Q2-Clamp Burning:
    Clamp is a temporary structure generally constructed over the ground with a height of about 4 to 6 m. It is employed when the demand of the bricks is lower scale and when it is not a monsoon season.
    This is generally trapezoidal in plan whose shorter edge among the parallel sides is below the ground and then the surface raising constantly at about 15 degrees to reach the other parallel edge over the ground.
    A vertical brick and mud wall is constructed at the lower edge to support the stack of the brick. First layer of fuel is laid as the bottom most layer with the coal, wood and other locally available material like cow dung and husk.
    Another layer of about 4 to 5 rows of bricks is laid and then again a fuel layer is laid over it. The thickness of the fuel layer goes on with the height of the clamp.
    After these alternate layers of the bricks and fuel the top surface is covered with the mud so as to preserve the heat.
    Fire is ignited at the bottom, once fire is started it is kept under fire by itself for one or two months and same time period is needed for the cooling of the bricks.
    Disadvantages of Clamp burning:
    1. Bricks at the bottom are over-burnt while at the top are under-burnt.
    2. Bricks loose their shape, and reason may be their descending downward once the fuel layer is burnt.
    3. This method can not employed for the manufacturing of large number of bricks and it is costly in terms of fuel because large amount of heat is wasted.
    4. It can not be employed in monsoon season.
    Kiln Burning:
    Kiln is a large oven used for the burning of bricks. Generally coal and other locally available materials like wood, cow dung etc can be used as fuel. They are of two types:
    (a) Intermittent Kilns.
    (b) Continuous Kilns.
    Intermittent Kilns
    are also the periodic kind of kilns, because in such kilns only one process can take place at one time. Various major processes which takes place in the kilns are:
    Loading, unloading, Cooling, and Burning of bricks.
    There are two kind of intermittent kilns:
    (i) Up-draught Intermittent Kilns
    (ii) Down draught Intermittent Kilns
    Down draught kilns are more efficient because the heat is utilized more by moving the hot gases in the larger area of the kiln. In up draught kilns the hot gases are released after they rise up to chimney entrance.
    Continuous Kilns:
    These kilns are called continuous because all the processes of loading, unloading, cooling, Heating, pre-heating take place simultaneously. They are used when the bricks are demanded in larger scale and in short time. Bricks burning is completed in one day, so it is a fast method of burning.
    There are two well known continuous kilns:
    Bull’s Trench Kiln:
    Bull’s trench kiln consist of a rectangular, circular or oval plan shape. They are constructed below the ground level by excavating a trench of the required width for the given capacity of brick manufacturing.
    This Trench is divided generally in 12 chambers so that 2 numbers of cycles of brick burning can take place at the same time for the larger production of the bricks. Or it may happen that one cycle is carried out at one time in all the 12 chambers by using a single process in the 2-3 chambers at the same time.
    The structure is under-ground so the heat is conserved to a large extent so it is more efficient. Once fire is started it constantly travels from one chamber to the other chamber, while other operations like loading, unloading, cooling, burning and preheating taking place simultaneously.
    Such kilns are generally constructed to have a manufacturing capacity of about 20,000 bricks per day. The drawback of this kiln is that there is not a permanent roof, so it is not easy to manufacture the bricks in the monsoon seasons.
    Hoffman’s Kiln:
    The main difference between the Bull’s trench kiln and the Hoffman kilns are:
    1. Hoffman’s kiln is an over the ground structure while Bull’s Trench Kiln is an underground structure.
    2. Hoffman’s kiln have a permanent roof while Bull’s trench Kiln do not have so it former can be used in 12 months a year to manufacture bricks but later is stopped in the monsoon season.
    Hoffman’s kiln is generally circular in plan, and is constructed over the ground. The whole structure is divided into the 12 chambers and all the processes takes place simultaneously like in Bull’s trench Kiln.

  7. Apeh Theresa REG NUMBER:fpi/nd/Qs/15/040 PHONE NUMBER:07051766077
    1) WHAT IS DISTEMPER? Distemper is a kind of paint using glue or size instead of an ilo base for use on walls or for scene painting.
    2)i The entire surface should be coated with proper distemper brushes in horizontal strokes uniformly followed by vertical ones immediately.
    ii) The subsequent coats should be applied only after the previous coats are dried.
    iii) the finished surface should even and uniform showing no brush marks.
    iv) Enough distemper should be mixed to finish one room at a time .
    v) After a day work the brushes should be washed in hot water.
    3)i They are workable easy in application but less durable.
    ii) The film being porous can be applied even newly plastered surface.
    iii) the coating are thick and more little compared to paints.
    4) CLAMP BURNING is a tempory structure generally constructed over their ground with a height of 4- 6m. it is not a monsoon season. A vertical bricks and mud walls are constructed at the lower edge to support the stack of the brick.

    WHILE
    KILN BURNING is a large oven used for the burning of bticks.Generally coal and other locally available materials like wood,cow dung e.t.c can be used as fuel. They are two types which are:
    i) intermittent kilns
    ii) continous kilns.

  8. ANSWER..
    distemper is a term with variety of meaning
    for paints used in decorating and as a
    historical medium for painting pictures, and
    contrasted with tempera . The binder may
    be glues if vegetable or animal origin
    ( excluding egg) .soft distemper us not
    abrasion resistant and may include binders
    such as chalk, grind pigment , and chemical
    glue. Hard distemper is stronger and wear
    resistant and can include casein or indeed
    oil as binders .
    HOW TO APPLIED DISTEMPER ON THE
    SURFACE
    ——-PLANING BEFORE PAINTING
    1. first identify the areas that are to be
    painted , like wall , ceiling doors, metal grills
    , wooden furniture etc.
    2.Check for any repairs needed on the
    identify area.e.g there is any seepage or
    leakage in any of the wall or ceiling then
    that should be treated on the surface.Any
    plastered, repairing and waterproof be done
    before painting.
    3.It is advisable to paint humid climate or
    in raining season because in this condition
    paint take longer time to dry and the film
    does not cure properly.
    PAINTING PROCESS
    —SANDING /SURFACE PREPARATION
    1. While painting the interior walls, allow it
    to dry fit sufficient time after application if
    lime -wash.. Then remove all dust , dirt,
    loose particle , flakes by using appropriate
    sand paper.

      1. AGIH ILIASU
        FPI/ND/QS/15/009
        08063528960

        Q1-WHAT IS DISTEMPER?
        Distemper is a traditional hand-made paint,
        that leaves a soft, velvetly, slightly uneven
        finish. Most of the time distemper can be
        applied in two coats, one straight after the
        other. When prepared properly, it goes on
        easily, dries quickly and can be washed off
        again with a wet rag. This makes it perfect
        for painting decorative plasterwork like
        cornices and ceiling roses where you don’t
        want a build up of paint layers to bury the
        sculptural detail.
        Unfortunately, distempered walls scuff and
        scratch easily and are difficult to keep
        clean. Spot cleaning will leave smears and
        streaks, although in the past distempers
        were used in low key and utilitarian areas
        where appearance was unimportant.
        Distemper is a perfect finish in buildings
        where moisture is a problem. Its porosity,
        or in other words, its ability to breathe,
        allows underlying moisture to escape to the
        surface and away from the masonry. It’s
        also the only paint that will sit happily on
        freshly plastered walls. Oil paint, by
        contrast, reacts dramatically with the high
        lime content of traditional plaster, causing
        the paint to go gluggy and ‘saponify’, which
        results in a soapy mess. To avoid this, new
        walls were left to cure for two to three
        years, or buffed to a smooth polish.
        Otherwise the surfaces were finished in
        distemper until the lime had settled down.
        Q2-Clamp Burning:
        Clamp is a temporary structure generally
        constructed over the ground with a height
        of about 4 to 6 m. It is employed when the
        demand of the bricks is lower scale and
        when it is not a monsoon season.
        This is generally trapezoidal in plan whose
        shorter edge among the parallel sides is
        below the ground and then the surface
        raising constantly at about 15 degrees to
        reach the other parallel edge over the
        ground.
        A vertical brick and mud wall is constructed
        at the lower edge to support the stack of
        the brick. First layer of fuel is laid as the
        bottom most layer with the coal, wood and
        other locally available material like cow
        dung and husk.
        Another layer of about 4 to 5 rows of bricks
        is laid and then again a fuel layer is laid
        over it. The thickness of the fuel layer goes
        on with the height of the clamp.
        After these alternate layers of the bricks
        and fuel the top surface is covered with the
        mud so as to preserve the heat.
        Fire is ignited at the bottom, once fire is
        started it is kept under fire by itself for one
        or two months and same time period is
        needed for the cooling of the bricks.
        Disadvantages of Clamp burning:
        1. Bricks at the bottom are over-burnt while
        at the top are under-burnt.
        2. Bricks loose their shape, and reason may
        be their descending downward once the
        fuel layer is burnt.
        3. This method can not employed for the
        manufacturing of large number of bricks
        and it is costly in terms of fuel because
        large amount of heat is wasted.
        4. It can not be employed in monsoon
        season.
        Kiln Burning:
        Kiln is a large oven used for the burning of
        bricks. Generally coal and other locally
        available materials like wood, cow dung etc
        can be used as fuel. They are of two types:
        (a) Intermittent Kilns.
        (b) Continuous Kilns.
        Intermittent Kilns
        are also the periodic kind of kilns, because
        in such kilns only one process can take
        place at one time. Various major processes
        which takes place in the kilns are:
        Loading, unloading, Cooling, and Burning of
        bricks.
        There are two kind of intermittent kilns:
        (i) Up-draught Intermittent Kilns
        (ii) Down draught Intermittent Kilns
        Down draught kilns are more efficient
        because the heat is utilized more by
        moving the hot gases in the larger area of
        the kiln. In up draught kilns the hot gases
        are released after they rise up to chimney
        entrance.
        Continuous Kilns:
        These kilns are called continuous because
        all the processes of loading, unloading,
        cooling, Heating, pre-heating take place
        simultaneously. They are used when the
        bricks are demanded in larger scale and in
        short time. Bricks burning is completed in
        one day, so it is a fast method of burning.
        There are two well known continuous kilns:
        Bull’s Trench Kiln:
        Bull’s trench kiln consist of a rectangular,
        circular or oval plan shape. They are
        constructed below the ground level by
        excavating a trench of the required width
        for the given capacity of brick
        manufacturing.
        This Trench is divided generally in 12
        chambers so that 2 numbers of cycles of
        brick burning can take place at the same
        time for the larger production of the bricks.
        Or it may happen that one cycle is carried
        out at one time in all the 12 chambers by
        using a single process in the 2-3 chambers
        at the same time.
        The structure is under-ground so the heat
        is conserved to a large extent so it is more
        efficient. Once fire is started it constantly
        travels from one chamber to the other
        chamber, while other operations like
        loading, unloading, cooling, burning and
        preheating taking place simultaneously.
        Such kilns are generally constructed to
        have a manufacturing capacity of about
        20,000 bricks per day. The drawback of this
        kiln is that there is not a permanent roof,
        so it is not easy to manufacture the bricks
        in the monsoon seasons.
        Hoffman’s Kiln:
        The main difference between the Bull’s
        trench kiln and the Hoffman kilns are:
        1. Hoffman’s kiln is an over the ground
        structure while Bull’s Trench Kiln is an
        underground structure.
        2. Hoffman’s kiln have a permanent roof

        while Bull’s trench Kiln do not have so it
        former can be used in 12 months a year to
        manufacture bricks but later is stopped in
        the monsoon season.
        Hoffman’s kiln is generally circular in plan,
        and is constructed over the ground. The
        whole structure is divided into the 12
        chambers and all the processes takes place
        simultaneously like in Bull’s trench Kiln

  9. MBANWUSI CELESTINE(FPI/ND/QS/15/058)

    PHONE NO: 07036474138
    QUIZ ON QTS 104
    QST 1. WHAT IS DISTEMPER?
    ANSWER..
    distemper is a term with variety of meaning
    for paints used in decorating and as a
    historical medium for painting pictures, and
    contrasted with tempera . The binder may
    be glues if vegetable or animal origin
    ( excluding egg) .soft distemper us not
    abrasion resistant and may include binders
    such as chalk, grind pigment , and chemical
    glue. Hard distemper is stronger and wear
    resistant and can include casein or indeed
    oil as binders .
    HOW TO APPLIED DISTEMPER ON THE
    SURFACE
    ——-PLANING BEFORE PAINTING
    1. first identify the areas that are to be
    painted , like wall , ceiling doors, metal grills
    , wooden furniture etc.
    2.Check for any repairs needed on the
    identify area.e.g there is any seepage or
    leakage in any of the wall or ceiling then
    that should be treated on the surface.Any
    plastered, repairing and waterproof be done
    before painting.
    3.It is advisable to paint humid climate or
    in raining season because in this condition
    paint take longer time to dry and the film
    does not cure properly.
    PAINTING PROCESS
    —SANDING /SURFACE PREPARATION
    1. While painting the interior walls, allow it
    to dry fit sufficient time after application if
    lime -wash.. Then remove all dust , dirt,
    loose particle , flakes by using appropriate
    sand paper.

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